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  • Catalogue

    • Types of Expenses
    • Formula
    • Examples

    Expenses refer to the money a company spends to keep things running smoothly, make revenue, and stay afloat. They are vital in determining a company's profitability. Expenses represent the costs incurred by a company to generate revenue and maintain operations on a day-to-day basis. In a nutshell, a business's expenses are the expenditures that result from paying for various activities, goods, and services needed to run the enterprise.

    Types of Expenses

    Expenses can be categorised into two main types: operating expenses and non-operating expenses.

    Operating Expenses (OPEX):

    These are the day-to-day costs associated with running a business. They are essential for the company's ongoing operations and can be further divided into subcategories:

    Administrative Expenses: These are costs associated with general administrative functions, such as office rent, utilities, office supplies, insurance, and salaries of administrative staff.

    Selling and Marketing Expenses: These expenses are related to promoting and selling products or services. They include advertising, sales commissions, marketing campaigns, and travel expenses for sales representatives.

    Research and Development (R&D) Expenses: These are incurred when a company invests in the development and improvement of products or services.

    Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): COGS represents the direct costs associated with producing or purchasing the products or services a business sells. This includes raw materials, labor, manufacturing expenses, and the cost of inventory.

    Non-Operating Expenses (NPEX):

    These expenses are not directly related to the core business operations but still affect the company's overall financial health:

    Interest Expenses: Interest expenses arise from borrowing money, such as bank loans or bonds. These costs are incurred for using borrowed capital.

    Depreciation and Amortisation: Depreciation represents the allocation of the cost of tangible assets (e.g., buildings, equipment) over their useful lives, while amortisation does the same for intangible assets (e.g., patents, copyrights). These expenses are non-cash and reflect the gradual reduction in the value of assets over time.

    Taxes: Companies are required to pay various taxes, including income taxes, property taxes, and sales taxes. Tax expenses are a significant consideration in financial planning and reporting.

    Employee Benefits: This category includes expenses related to employee compensation and benefits, such as salaries, wages, bonuses, healthcare benefits, retirement contributions, and stock options.

    Provisions and Reserves: Companies may set aside funds as provisions or reserves for expected future expenses or contingencies, such as warranty costs, legal settlements, or bad debts.

    Miscellaneous Expenses: This category encompasses various other expenses specific to the industry or company, which may not fit neatly into the above categories. It includes items like charitable donations or one-time restructuring costs.


    You can use the following formula to calculate total expenses for a specific period.

    • Total Operating Expenses = Administrative Expenses + Selling and Marketing Expenses + Research and Development Expenses + General and Other Operating Expenses
    • Cost of Goods Sold = Beginning Inventory + Purchases or Production Costs - Ending Inventory
    • Interest Expense = Principal Amount of Debt × Interest Rate
    • Depreciation Expense = (Cost of Asset - Salvage Value) ÷ Useful Life of Asset
    • Amortisation Expense = (Initial Cost of Intangible Asset - Residual Value) ÷ Useful Life of Asset
    • Tax Expense = Taxable Income × Tax Rate


    Operating Expenses

    • Personnel Costs: If your company pays Rs. 10,00,000 in salaries and Rs. 2,00,000 in employee benefits monthly, your monthly personnel costs would be Rs. 12,00,000.
    • Rent and Utilities: If your monthly rent is Rs. 1,00,000, and your utilities cost Rs. 80,000, your total monthly rent and utilities expenses would be Rs. 1,80,000.

    That makes your total operating expenses Rs. 13,80,000.

    Non-Operating Expenses

    • Interest Expenses: If your company has a loan with a monthly interest payment of Rs. 50,000, your monthly interest expense would be Rs. 50,000.
    • Taxes: If your quarterly income tax liability is Rs. 80,000, your quarterly tax expense would be Rs. 80,000.

    That makes your total non-expenses Rs.1,30,000

    Thus, your total expenses will beRs. 15,10,000.