On This Day: India's Space Journey Began with Aryabhata in 1975

Aryabhata, India's first satellite, was launched on this day in 1975, signifying the beginning of the country's remarkable journey in space research and technology, which continues to thrive today

On This Day: India's Space Journey Began with Aryabhata in 1975

Wednesday April 19, 2023,

3 min Read

On April 19, 1975, India took a giant leap into the space age with the successful launch of its first satellite, Aryabhata. Named after the renowned Indian mathematician and astronomer, the satellite's launch marked a significant milestone in India's space program. With the help of the Soviet Union, Aryabhata was launched into orbit using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle from the Kapustin Yar launch site in Russia. This historic moment heralded the beginning of a new era in Indian space research and technology.


India's interest in space exploration began in the early 1960s under the guidance of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, who is widely regarded as the father of the Indian space program. Recognising the potential of space technology for national development, the Indian government established the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 1969. The primary objective of ISRO was to harness space technology for national development while pursuing space research and planetary exploration.

The Birth of Aryabhata

Named in honor of the 5th-century Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata, the satellite was a testament to India's rich scientific heritage. The project was led by a team of dedicated Indian scientists and engineers who worked tirelessly to design and develop the satellite. Weighing 360 kg, Aryabhata was equipped with a variety of scientific instruments to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, solar physics, and ionospheric studies.

Collaboration with the Soviet Union

The successful launch of Aryabhata was made possible through a collaborative effort between India and the Soviet Union. As part of an agreement signed in 1972, the Soviet Union agreed to provide technical assistance and a launch vehicle for the satellite. The Kosmos-3M rocket, a proven workhorse in the Soviet space program, was chosen to carry Aryabhata into orbit. The satellite was launched from the Kapustin Yar launch site in Russia on April 19, 1975.

Impact on India's Space Program

The launch of Aryabhata marked a significant milestone in India's space program, propelling the country into the elite club of space-faring nations. The success of the mission boosted the confidence of Indian scientists and engineers, paving the way for more ambitious projects in the future. In the years that followed, India continued to make rapid strides in space technology, launching numerous satellites for communication, remote sensing, and meteorology.

Moreover, the success of Aryabhata laid the foundation for India's independent satellite launch capabilities. Today, India boasts a range of advanced launch vehicles, including the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), which have successfully placed numerous domestic and foreign satellites into orbit.

Aryabhata's launch on April 19, 1975, marked a defining moment in India's space history. The successful mission set the stage for India's impressive progress in space research and technology over the past five decades. As India continues to explore new frontiers in space, the legacy of Aryabhata will remain a proud reminder of the country's entry into the space age and a testament to the talent and dedication of its scientists and engineers.